Technology: the most dangerous submarine

Door San Daniel gepubliceerd in Verhalen en Poëzie

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Submarines:


Alexander the Great already plunged to the bottom of the sea in 300 BC, 2300 years ago, in a diving bell, for that matter vehicles for surviving under water are older than the road to Rome. In a diving bell someone could stay under water for 1 hour, later that was extended by lowering barrels of oxygen, weighed down with stones. The diver came out of the diving bell grabbed the barrel and opened it in the bell and the bubble settled against the ceiling. that sounds like something from very old times but during the construction of the IJtunnel in Amsterdam, in th 1950's divers' bells were still being used.

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The first vehicle that could travel under water was invented in 1620 by the Dutchman; Cornelis Drebbel, inventor and engineer. He built it on behalf of King James I of England, they aggravated it and  let it sink under water and then it was propelled by rowers under water. Two public test trials were conducted, in the River Thames, in 1620 and a little later with a larger model in 1624. Both tests became a success, and the bishop John Wilkins put forward 5 points in a report from 1648 to recommend and produce this "weapon" on a larger scale.

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1. it causes a man to reach a hostile coast unseen
2. it does not suffer from storms 5 feet underwater
3. it can place a bomb, unseen, on enemy ships
4. if a place is besieged but has access by water, it can bring supplies
5. extremely important as a scientific experiment.
That was some enlightened bishop. The Drebbelships dived to a depth of 5 meters and could stay under water for 3 hours. Oxygen and carbon dioxide were unknown, but Drebbel's chemical knowledge was so great that he designed a device that caught  carbon dioxide and released oxygen.

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The first actual military action of a submarine took place against the English when a explosive cargo was attached, under water, to the bow of the British warship, the HMS Eagle the British flagship. The explosive was applied by the "turtle" the first military submarine developed by the American David Buschnel in 1775. The incident took place in the port of New York in the American revolution, in which the colony of America, freed itself from the mother land, England.

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In the later American Civil War, frequent use was made by both sides of submarine boats, 'the Alligator' was a successful submarine that was launched in 1862 for the US Navy and was propelled by a propeller that was again manually driven by 16 men. She was already working with an air compression system which allowed more oxygen to be taken along. To resist the pressure, these submarines had double hulls.

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The H.L Hunley from 1863 was the most successful submarine in the Southern states. This boat did not yet have the compressed air and the crew needed the oxygen that was "taken along" for diving. This boat was also driven by hand. The Hunley already had an electric motor, but it turned out not to be strong enough.

In the 19th century, the first boats that were mechanically driven first came up with a steam engine, during the voyage above water, and on the compression air by that same steam engine. The steam submarines lost the benefit of surprise attack by the smoke plume when they emerged.

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The beginning of the 20th century produced a combination of diesel and electric engine in terms of propulsion. In 1902 the USS Plunger sails on the combined engine. Above water on diesel power and under water on the electric motor that used the batteries that were charged above water, during diesel drive. The submarine has now become a strong weapon in the fight against naval ships and convoys. A Dutch invention, the snuff, or the snorkel, causes a tube to protrude above water so that oxygen can also be taken under water to simply run on diesel power. This invention gave the German U boat an incredible advantage over other submarines.

The submarine has therefore become indispensable in modern warfare. The current atomic submarines are no longer dependent on oxygen or fuel and can remain under water for up to 5 months. So it now depends more on the endurance of the crew.

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The deadliest and most modern submarine:


The British navy has given the green light to the ultimate submarine, the hunting weapon that blurs all of the foregoing. If it is in the North Sea, it can hear a ship sailing away from the port of New York with its sonar. It is the most powerful and modern atomic submarine ever built.

Her atomic reactors can let her go for 25 years without interruption. She is so hi-tech that she doesn't need a periscope. She is called the Ambush and there is a price tag of 1.2 billion euros on her. Her armory consists of torpedoes and Tomahawk cruise missiles.

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Her crew consists of 103 members and although the ship is huge, they sleep in bunk beds with 8 members per cabin. The beds measure 2 meters long by 1 meter wide. The hull is covered with rubber tiles to absorb internal noises. It has its own oxygen and water exchange unit. It converts seawater, into drinking water and removes the CO2 and hydrogen from the used air and refreshes it into oxygen. The steel hull is 18 centimeters thick. Two masts replace the old periscope. After three seconds above the water they give a 360 degree view. The other masts maintain satellite connections and radar and navigation systems.

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She has 38 Tomahawk cruise missiles that have a range of 2000 kilometers. In addition, there is an unspecified number of standard torpedoes on board. The kitchen has 5 chefs who work around the clock. The crew has 5 toilets and 5 showers and 2 urinals and 5 sinks at their disposal. There are 11 sleeping places always reserved for guests, think of special units.

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Her nuclear power plant gives her 25 years of continuous propulsion. Sonar detectors in the flanks and in the hull can detect other ships up to a distance of 5000 kilometers. Her food supply is sufficient for a 3-month underwater trip. Its water displacement is 7,400 metric tons, which is equivalent to 65 large blue whales. Its length is 96 meters, compared to 10 buses in succession and its width is 12 meters. It is 12 storeys high. Her top speed is 20 nautical miles, which gives her 800 kilometers a day that she can cover. She can dive to a depth of 200 meters.

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Her sonar system has the power of 2000 laptop computers. She "hears" the enemy coming halfway the world and is seen as one of the most advanced independently functioning weapon systems in the world.

Good speed, 'Ambush,' and I hope you never have to be deployed.

San Daniel 2019

 

references:

28/11/2019 21:34

Reacties (1) 

1
28/11/2019 23:07
Prachtige uitvinding die onderzeeër - en een boeiend artikel.
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